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Periodontal Disease in Dogs

Periodontal disease, also known as gum disease, is a common condition seen in dogs by our West Chester vets. Today, we explain the cause and symptoms of periodontal disease in dogs and how you can help prevent this painful condition and preserve your pup's oral health. 

What is periodontal disease in dogs?

Periodontitis - otherwise known as periodontal disease or gum disease - happens when your dog has an excess build-up of plaque on their teeth that begins to cause infection. Much like tooth decay in people, dogs with periodontal disease typically don’t show any obvious symptoms until the condition reaches a more advanced stage.

When the symptoms of periodontal disease do begin to become apparent, your dog may already be experiencing chronic pain, tooth loss, gum erosion, or even bone loss as the supporting structures of your pup's teeth are weakened. 

Why does my dog have periodontal disease?

When plaque (a thin, sticky film of bacteria) is allowed to accumulate on your dog's teeth it hardens into a substance called calculus or tartar that is difficult to remove.

When left untreated the tartar will continue to build up and eventually cause pockets to form between the gums and the teeth where bacteria become trapped and create an infection. At this stage, abscesses may begin to form, tissue and bone deterioration can occur, and your dog's teeth may start to loosen and fall out.

In small and toy breed dogs advanced periodontal disease often leads to jaw fractures.

Poor oral healthcare is the number one cause of periodontal disease in dogs, but some other contributing factors are dirty toys, crowded teeth, poor nutrition, and excessive grooming habits.

What are the signs of periodontal disease in dogs?

There are typically few or no signs of periodontal disease while the condition is in the early stages, however, if your dog is suffering from advanced periodontal disease you may notice one or more of the following symptoms: 

  • Bad breath (halitosis)
  • Loose or missing teeth teeth
  • Blood on chew toys or in water bowl
  • Excessive drooling (that may contain blood)
  • Favoring one side of the mouth when chewing
  • Reduced appetite
  • Discolored teeth (yellow or brown)
  • Inflamed or bleeding gums
  • Irritability
  • Problems keeping food in mouth
  • Weight loss

As you can see, periodontal disease is a serious health concern. Besides affecting your dog's oral health, periodontal disease has been linked to other health conditions such as heart disease. This is because the bacteria in your pup's mouth can spread through the bloodstream to other organs. 

How to Treat Periodontal Disease in Dogs 

If your dog is developing or suffering from the symptoms of periodontal disease your vet may recommend professional cleaning or other treatments depending on the severity of your dog's oral health problems.

For your vet to perform a thorough examination of your dog's teeth and gums, as well as any treatments necessary, the use of anesthesia will be required. Your vet will likely recommend that pre-anesthesia blood work be done to determine whether your pet is healthy enough for anesthesia medications.

Dental procedures for dogs typically include:

  • Dental radiographs (X-rays)
  • Tooth charting 
  • Tooth scaling and polishing 
  • Application of fluoride
  • Application of a dental sealant 
  • Extractions as required (with local anesthesia such as novocaine)
  • Pain medication during and post-procedure when required 

How can I prevent my dog from developing periodontal disease?

Fortunately, periodontal disease can be prevented, treated, and even reversed if it is detected in its early stages. There are two key approaches to caring for your dog's oral health. 

Professional Cleanings & Dental Exams for Your Dog

To help prevent periodontal disease in your dog, be sure not to neglect your pup's oral health. Just like people, our canine friends need regular dental appointments to keep their oral hygiene in check and to identify any areas of concern more serious issues develop.

You should bring your dog to your vet for a professional cleaning at least annually. If your dog is already suffering from early-stage periodontal disease (gingivitis) or has other oral health concerns, your vet may recommend you visit more often. 

Caring For Your Dog's Teeth at Home

To prevent the development of periodontal disease between appointments you should brush your dog's teeth daily to remove plaque and prevent bacteria from forming. You may also want to offer your dog specially formulated dental chews for fun-to-chew dental care. Talk to your vet about which products they recommend. 

If your pup is showing signs of periodontal disease such as swollen or inflamed gums, appetite changes, or missing teeth, book an appointment with your vet as soon as possible. Remember that oral health issues in dogs can be very painful.

Note: The advice provided in this post is intended for informational purposes and does not constitute medical advice regarding pets. For an accurate diagnosis of your pet's condition, please make an appointment with your vet.

Is it time for your pup's veterinary dental cleaning? Contact our West Chester vets to book an appointment today.

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